The #Qantasluxury Social Media Campaign Failure

Camryn Giles

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(Source: ABC, 2011)

The escalation of social media’s prominence within daily life, has not only dramatically modified our interpersonal relationships; but also the relationship between consumers and brands. As a result, strategic social media management has become a crucial aspect of a brands’ marketing. According to Forbes journalist Jason De Mers (2014), recent statistics have indicated that 92% of marketers in 2014 considered social media to be a prominent contributor in terms of creating brand perception and consumer interaction. Subsequently, the mismanagement of social media campaigns can have severely negative influences on brand perception and brand/consumer relationships. Qantas Airway’s 2011 twitter #QantasLuxury competition  backfired when dissatisfied consumers retaliated online; exemplifying an unsuccessful social media campaign. This essay will analyse the campaign and the publics reaction, as well as identify the main factors that contributed to its downfall in order to suggest possible measures that could have been taken to prevent this negative reception occurring.

Qantas Airways is an established Australian carrier airline, and is currently the nations largest airline in terms of international flights, destinations and fleet size (Qantas, 2017). Despite being an internationally distinguished organisation, Qantas is not exempt from the negative impacts following unsuccessful marketing campaigns.  On the 22nd of November 2011, the company launched an online marketing campaign using the social media platform Twitter (Miller, 2011). In a brief post at 9:00am, Qantas announced a competition, stating “To enter tell us ‘What is your dream luxury inflight experience? (Be creative!) Answer must include #QantasLuxury” (Glance, 2011). The prize included winning one of 50 pairs of Qantas first-class luxury amenity kits and pyjamas, and was aimed at provided consumers with a taste of ‘first class luxury. However, within moments, the hashtag #QantasLuxury was attracting the responses of hundreds of consumers, dissatisfied with the company’s recent decision to ground the entire fleet (Glance, 2011). On the night 29th of October 2011, Qantas CEO , Alan Boss, announced that the company would be temporarily locking staff out and immediately grounding the both the domestic and international fleets; in response to the unions’ industrial action (ABC News, 2011). This action left thousands stranded for days on end, and placing many consumers in compromising positions. Many of the negative #QantasLuxury tweet responses angrily described the ordeals that individual’s were put through , with one twitter user, Tim Watts,  tweeting “ @timwattsau#qantasluxury was being abandoned at Heathrow for 4 days in the snow with no customer support while trying to get home to 8mo pregnant wife!” (Twitter, 2011). While the initial goal of the campaign was to promote the Qantas brand positively, the mass amount of negative responses it accumulated resulted in significant damage to the brands reputation.

In correspondence with the fleet grounding, the key factors that contributed to the fail of the #QantasLuxury include not only the timing of the campaign, but also lack of consideration the campaign presented to consumers. Additionally, social news and the way that news is now received contributed to the campaigns fail significantly. In regards to timing, had Qantas launched  the campaigns in the months prior to the fleet grounding, it is foreseeable that potentially;  it would have been moderately effective, if not successful (Schneider, 2011). However, the decision to launch a campaign designed to present the ‘Qantas experience’ as ‘luxurious’ only a month after the company had inconvenienced so many consumers was problematic. This is due to two reasons, the first being that it creates a contradiction, and gives the impression that the brand is presenting itself falsely. A tweet by Twitter user   “@interactivate” is exemplifies this, stating “Did the REAL Qantas PR team start this #qantasluxury thing in all seriousness? Today of all days? Do they have no idea at all? #PRfail” (Twitter, 2011). Secondly, the timing of the campaign gives the impression that the company has a complete lack of consideration for the disruption that the fleet grounding caused. While unintentional, the timing of the campaign comes across as insensitive, especially to consumers who are still dealing with personal consequences that resulted from the fleet grounding. This is evident in a tweet by user @2FBS, who recounted their experience at the time stating “@2FBS#QantasLuxury is dressing your staff in t-shirts that say “We’re Sorry” and believing that makes up for missing a friends funeral” (Twitter, 2011). Following the Twitter backlash, a Qantas spokesperson released a statement which claimed “A large number of our customers were disrupted and inconvenienced by the recent industrial action and fleet grounding, however services have returned to normal and our customers can book flights with absolute confidence that they will not be disrupted by industrial action.” (Schneider, 2011). While this statement acknowledges the inconvenience caused, it shows little remorse or empathy for consumers involved. Furthermore, the lack of consideration taken by the Qantas marketing team in regards to timing of the campaign played a significant role in the failure of the promotion.

Additionally, social news and the way that news is now received also contributed to the campaigns fail significantly. With social media allowing consumers to not only instantly access news as it unfolds, but also allowing them to share and contribute to the conversation, popular and controversial content can rapidly attract a ‘viral’ status (Peters, 2011).  According to , M. Story (pp.58) Twitter predominately consists of either other users posting links to certain content, or using the hashtag to affiliate their post with certain content . This helps to attract attention to a specify topic instantly, causing the topic to becoming ‘trending’.  Journalist Brian Peters (2016) suggests that highly trending hashtags not only attract attention, but also encourage users to contribute and give their own input to the topic. In the instance of #Quantasluxury, if users did not have direct experience with the outcomes of fleet grounding, they were using the hashtag to comment on the blacklist and continue the distribution of the hashtag. Even currently, a simple search of the hashtag indicates that users are still referring to it, recalling the negative backlash, and associating it with other companies social media failures. One user, Mark Travers (@marktravers, 2017), wrote “ Looks like the #qantasluxury social media person has a new gig”, last January in relation to another companies social media backlash. Unlike traditional news forms, social news maintains a longer lifespan, in the way that internet content is easily accessible for years to come. The popularity the #quantasluxury hashtag received initially was accelerated by consumers and news media sharing the hashtag and articles on multiple social media platforms, which linked to the mass amount of #quantasluxury twitter posts.

Social media campaign failures can provide insight into preventive methods that will effectively avoid the same failures reoccurring (Peters, 2011).. This situation could have been easily avoided, if Qantas had not only considered the timing, but taken more responsibility for the consequences of the fleet grounding. Rather than launching a promotion surrounding an luxurious image, a more effective tactic would have been to launch a campaign that aimed at acknowledging the position qantas had placed consumers in previously. Alternatively, the company could have simply postponed the luxury campaign at least six months to reduce the offence caused. It it crucial that brands display a sense of awareness and accountability, otherwise they will perpetuate an reputation renewed for  unreliability and dishonesty. Had Qantas released apologies and used social media to promote a campaign that aimed to apologise and support those negatively impacted, not only could this backlash been avoided, but this action could have shed positive light on the brand itself (Schneider, 2011).

Social Media presence and campaigns have become a significantly effective marketing method and way to establish positive relationships with consumers. However, it not utilised strategically, it can also rapidly damage brand reputation and consumer relationships. Evidently, companies must take key factors including timing and appropriateness of campaigns, in order to avoid failure and achieve the campaigns desired goal.

References

ABC News. (2011). Qantas grounds entire fleet. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-10-29/qantas-locking-out-staff/3608250

Burrows, Tim. (2011).  Qantas in new social media fail with #QantasLuxury hashtag backlash. Mumbrella News. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at https://mumbrella.com.au/qantas-in-new-social-media-fail-with-qantasluxury-hashtag-backlash-66093

DeMers, Jayson. (2014). The Top 10 Benefits Of Social Media Marketing. Forbes; Entrepreneurs. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at https://www.forbes.com/sites/jaysondemers/2014/08/11/the-top-10-benefits-of-social-media-marketing/#22346b0e1f80

Glance, David. (2011). #QantasLuxury: a Qantas social media disaster in pyjamas. The Conversation. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at http://theconversation.com/qantasluxury-a-qantas-social-media-disaster-in-pyjamas-4421

Miller, Daniel. (2011). Qantas Twitter campaign takes nosedive. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at http://www.abc.net.au/news/2011-11-22/qantas-twitter-hashtag-backfires/3686940

Peters, Brian. (2016). Why Do Tweets Go Viral? Our 10 Most Successful Tweets and the Psychology Behind Why They Worked. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at https://blog.bufferapp.com/successful-tweets

Rick, Torben. (2014). MARKETING IN THE DIGITAL AGE – HOW IS SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACTING MARKETING. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at https://www.torbenrick.eu/blog/marketing/how-is-social-media-impacting-marketing/

Schneider, Kate. (2011). Fail! Qantas red-faced after Twitter campaign backfires. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at http://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-updates/fail-qantas-red-faced-after-twitter-campaign-backfires/news-story/8b6979149ca83aff2662054228131006

Story, M. 2012. “Making yourself visible to employers”. IN Starting Your Career s a Social Media Manager, (pp.56). New York: Allworth Press.

Twitter. (2011). #quantasluxury – Twitter search. Accessed 11th of May 2017 at https://twitter.com/search?q=%23qantasluxury

 

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The Influence of Web 2.0 on the Fashion Industry

Camryn Giles

“The fashion industry has used the press far more than the film industry has; because it has nothing more to sell except for the image. The image is everything” (Macpherson, 2010)

 

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(Source: Dhillon, 2015)

One of the most internationally influential, diverse and dominating industries within the world is that of the fashion industry. An industry in which has typically dictated and implicated trends, with designers controlling and influencing the iconic styles that imprinted upon decades (Macpherson, 2010). Unlike some other industries, the Fashion Industry has always withheld a global reach; with the trends which first emerged on Parisian runways, eventually finding themselves worn far away on the streets of Australia. Despite this, the global emergence of Web 2.0, and social media has proved to have a highly significant impact upon the industry and it’s structure. Traditionally, fashion has not only provided an outlet for individuals to express themselves uniquely through style, but also a way for individuals to participate in trends and establish a sense of inclusion (Akahoshi, 2012, pp.11). With Web 2.0 now providing individuals with enhanced communication abilities and a sense of individualism like never before, the fashion industry and it use of public relations is completely transforming from traditional methods in order to survive. This essay will not only analyse how the emergence of Web 2.0 has transformed the structure of the fashion industry, but will also analyse the implications of this transformation for society and those operating within the industry.

The emergence of Web 2.0 has completely revolutionised the way we communicate, with Biagi referring to Web 2.0 as ’ .. a nonstop news and information machine, targeted to individual needs” (Biagi, 2005, pp.241). In  particular, the prominence of social media has modified the dynamics of the public sphere, with audiences once seen solely as consumers of content, now having the ability to contribute and disperse content themselves  (Keen, 2007, pp.34). With this, audiences now presume that they possess the power to influence the content that they see. Andrew Keen (2007, pp.34) refers to this as shift the ‘Information Age’, implying that Web 2.0 is controlled by ‘the traditional consumers’. Subsequently, the information age has also  transformed the dynamics of the fashion industry, revolutionising it from traditional means.

Traditionally, the fashion industry stood on a pedestal, possessing an exclusivity which encouraged product output to be produced privately behind closed doors by the industries most elite,  and then immersed into societal culture when debuted seasonally (Akahoshi, 2012, pp.11). This structure stipulated a clear assembly line of creativity, beginning solely with elite brands and designers, and ending with the consumer. Designers, regarded as industry elite, dictated the output and consumers were strictly the receivers. However, social media, and the rise of self- proclaimed fashion bloggers, has facilitated the emergence of “social fashion”. Platforms such as Instagram and Facebook now provide access to international audiences for bloggers and stylists who have acquired a substantial following. With a single post, social media influencers can reach up to millions of viewers instantly, igniting new fashion trends globally in moments. Fournier & Lee (2009, p.109) describe social media influencers as ‘opinion leaders’, who maintain their significance in the way that they “spread information, influence consumer decisions and help new ideas gain traction”. Social media influencers exemplify participatory culture, in the way that they defy traditional consumer culture through contributing, creating and distributing their own content relating to the industry (Jenkins, 2006, pp.3).  They fill the shoes of fashion editorial giants such as Vogue and Marie, as the new fashion content distributors; influencing the diffusion and acceptability of emerging styles and fashion trends (Lee, 2009). Consequently, social media influencers are rapidly becoming established brands most valuable public relations asset, with the majority straying from traditional marketing methods and acknowledging the influence provided by bloggers. This is evident in the way that social media influencers are now receiving front row seats to international fashion week, in conjunction with being invited to collaborate with highly regarded designers (Lee, 2009). Additionally, it has become common practice for brands to offer paid product promotion to influencers, in the hopes that their audiences will identify them with the brand and subsequently, feel more inclined to purchase (Fournier & Lee, 2009, p.109). According to the Lee (2009), Web 2.0, inconjunctions with participatory culture, has removed the boundaries of an industry once significantly difficult to infiltrate, creating a whole new potential career path for aspiring style experts.

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Social media influencers front row at International Fashion Week 2015 (Master, 2015)

With social media emphasising societal focus on individualism, and preservation of one’s networked identity, Akahoshi’s (2009, pp.14) findings suggest that consumers are increasingly striving to only affiliate with trends and brands that align them with their online persona. Rather than referring to the pages of Vogue, consumers now refer to fashion bloggers to determine which trends they wish to associate with, in order to create and protect their self concept. In fact, Bourne (2010) suggests that the closeness social media has facilitated between consumers and designers, has transformed the entire dynamic. Consumers, now accustomed to participatory culture, expect and demand input, and an opinion on the products provided to them . This exemplifies produsage, in the way consumers are now creating, distributing and circulating their own  fashion related content, blurring the boundaries between producer and consumer. Consequently, the structure has altered, with the consumers now creating and dictating trends; leaving brands and designers having to cater to these demands in order to maintain revenue.

With Web 2.0 and online retailers opening up the accessibility of products internationally, the pace of the fashion industry has rapidly increased in order to keep up with consumerism and international demand (DiMauro, 2011). Where trends once took 6 months to establish and emerge internationally, they are now emerging within days, perpetuating a culture of ‘fast fashion’. An international brand that demonstrates fast fashion is Spanish clothing company Zara. Zara are renown ‘fashion imitators’, imitating products seen on elite runways and dispersing them within their stores in the immediate weeks following (DiMauro, 2011). As a result, more consumers are opting to purchase cheaper imitation products, rather than the authentic original designer pieces; causing a shift of power from the designers to the chain-store brands. Although fast fashion allows consumers immediate access to new trends, it doesn’t come at a low ethical cost. In order to conform to increasing demands of urgency and lower pricing while maximising profit, well established corporations have begun sourcing production of their goods in low wage environments. This involves manufacturing in foreign ‘sweatshops’, in which severe exploitation is commonplace and employees renumeration consists of prices as low as 23 cents per hour (Rabine, 2014). Moreover, Web 2.0 has accelerated the pace of consumption of fashion, which not only restructures the industry and key stakeholders, but also presents a multitude of ethical issues.

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Source: (Crocker, 2015)

Traditionally, print magazines dominated the industry’s media content, being everyday consumers main source of trend and styling guidance. Contenders such as Vogue and Marie Claire were renown internationally, dominating the market unprecedentedly in terms of fashion related media. However, the prevalence of social media influencers and Web 2.0 now provides consumers with countless avenues to absorb information of current fashion trends, for no cost. Rather than flip through the pages of Vogue, upcoming generations are scrolling through Facebook or the posts of their most idolised fashion bloggers to determine what the latest on trend products are. Convergence of media has lead to magazine publications transferring to online outlets in order to evolve and survive in what is now a very diluted market. Noricks (2010) suggests that print magazines not longer regard online media outlets as just as extension, but rather as an interactive application for continuous fashion coverage.

While fashion remains to be one of the most influential and internationally prominent industries, the emergence of Web 2.0 has transformed the structure of the industry and how media publications operate within it. However, like fashion trends, the industry it self continuous to evolve, ever embracing the new without hesitation. For this reason, though the emergence of Web 2.0  many implications for the industry,  it has also provided an avenue for consumers to involve themselves in the trends,  and expanded the industry’s global access more than ever.

References 

Akahoshi, T. (2012). Social Media in the Public Relations Profession. In Akahoshi, Transparency in the Fashion Industry: Social Media Use in Public Relations Strategies. New York, USA. NYU Press.

Biagi, S. (2005). Chapter 12, News and Information ; Getting Personal In Biagi, Shirley Media Impact, an Introduction to Mass Media. (pp. 241). Belmont USA; Thomson Higher Education.

Crocker, L. (2015). Why Vogue Declared War on Fashion Bloggers. Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2016/09/28/why-vogue-declared-war-on-fashion-bloggers.html

Dhillon, K. (2015). How Did Social Media Change Fashion Consumption? Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from https://www.notjustalabel.com/editorial/how-did-social-media-change-fashion-consumption

Fournier. H & Lee. T. (2009). Bloggers as Opinion Leaders. Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from https://marketing.conference-services.net/resources/327/2958/pdf/AM2012_0224_paper.pdf

Lee, T. (2009). The Influence of Fashion Blogs on Consumers. Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from https://marketing.conference-services.net/resources/327/2958/pdf/AM2012_0224_paper.pdf

Jenkins, H. (2006) pp.3). Introduction: Confessions of a Fan.  In  Jenkins, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture (pp.2-6). New York, USA. NYU Press.

Keen, A. (2007). Chapter 1 : The Great Seduction. In Keen, Andrew, The cult of the amateur : how today’s internet is killing our culture and assaulting our economy, (pp. 34). London: Nicholas Breasley.

Macpherson, E. (2010). Fashion Industry Quotes. Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from https://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/fashion_industry.html

Master, L. M. (2015). London Fashion Week’s Social Media Takeover. Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from http://wersm.com/london-fashion-weeks-social-media-takeover/

Rabine, L.W. (2014). Globalization and the Fashion Industry. Retrieved on the 31st March 2017 from http://fashion-history.lovetoknow.com/fashion-clothing-industry/globalization-fashion-industry

Professional Issues Throughout the Media and Journalism Industries and the Characteristics Required to Challenge Them

By Camryn Giles

Throughout the current semester, the QUT subject KJB102: Introduction to Journalism, Media & Communication has gone into extensive detail about the Journalism and Media industries, bringing to light some of the main unresolved issues currently occurring within these industries. Beckett (2008, pp.85) argues that journalism as a whole is a public service, and its historic importance continues to grow and adjusts to the increasingly technological, globalised and only world. In an age described as one of “information overload” due to frequent online interaction quickly becoming the social norm, Journalism continues to expand and transverse itself to appeal to and satisfy the needs of the modern day audience (Keen, 2007, pp. 34). Though both media and journalism have both progressed significantly throughout the 21st from their traditional forms, a number of professional issues of great importance have been brought to light and are yet to be sufficiently resolved. This essay will analyse the main professional issue of the misogyny occurring within these industries, as well as looking at two other issues including ownership throughout the digital age as well as personal issue that can influence the aspiring journalist. In addition, this essay will endeavour to outline the characteristics required amongst present and future media professionals in order to combat and overcome these issues and the challenges they present. Ultimately, through providing up and coming journalists and media professionals with theses characteristics, this will allow the industry to continue to grow and progress for the better.

Despite feminism growing at a fast pace and making significant changes to society through challenging social norms and the traditional ‘role’ of the female gender, misogyny continues to run rife throughout the journalism and media industries, presenting unacceptable ethical issues for media professionals. Research lead by Women In Journalism team Jane Martinson and Fiona Bardon (2012) found that throughout the UK, there was a significant gap in the amount of front page by lines which were male in comparison to those which were female, with 78% of all front page bylines being male, but only 22% being female. Additionally, an analysis of the gender of the journalists’s name who appeared first on lead stories revealed an evident distinction in the percentages between men and women, with 81% of male names being put before female names, which only accounted for 19% (Bardon, 2012). This evidence suggests the credibility and reliability of female journalists is still frequently undermined by today’s media professionals. However, research suggests this steep difference could potentially attributed to the fact that on average, published male journalists outnumber that of female journalists.

An article by the Guardian’s Roy Greenslade, revealed that male on the nationals journalists outnumber female journalists by a staggering 78% (Greenslade, 2011). Furthermore, it was found that men currently dominate sectors of journalism including business and political, and sports journalism, wiht only 3% of sports journalists being female. Many professionals often argue that this is simply due to the fact that there are certain areas that men traditionally dominate and that women traditionally dominate. However, why is it then that British male journalists are currently dominating not only their traditional areas of interest throughout journalism, but also those which would traditionally be expected to be dominated by women? Statistics revealed that males contend with female lifestyle reporters by 495 and out number female arts reporters by 70% (Greenslade, 2011). With males dominating even those areas traditional seen as more feminine, it is more then evident that the journalism and media industry severely lack the confidence in female journalists’ ability to even write about topics traditionally seen as ‘theirs’, let alone those which traditionally are more masculine.

To further the issue, research released by the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF) in their 2011 Global Report on The Status of Women in the News Media shows that female journalists are being employed at a significantly lower rate than that of male journalists, with only 33.3% of full-time journalists in the workforce over 522 companies surveyed being women (2011). Additionally, males occupy 73% of the top management jobs and specifically in Australia, males occupy over 90% of these authoritarian roles. The fact that men outweighs women within the industry so heavily can’t be attributed to lack of female interest in journalism, and is rather curious as Greenslade comments that the number of females unmaking tertiary courses in journalism is constantly outnumbering that of males undertaking these courses (Greenslade, 2011). Evidently, this data displays the trials of inequality women attempting to successfully flourish within journalism currently face , and suggests that strict glass ceilings are yet to be broken.

Not only is the employment rate pitted against women in journalism, but more often than not, female journalism are constantly criticised for their ‘aggressive approaches’, which would hardly be considered aggressive, but reasonable if the journalist in question was in fact a male. This was demonstrates in Malcolm Turnbull’s criticism of two female ABC veteran journalists, Emma Alberci and Leigh Sales, stating that the pair were “overly aggressive” in their interviewing approach and that they should take a “more forensic approach”. Despite this, the pair responded tactfully to Turnbull’s remarks, Sales stating that pushing people to answer questions they are reluctant to answer is her job. In response, Alberci stated “When I do a tough interview I will be called an ‘aggressive bitch’ but when (her Lateline co-host) Tony Jones does a similar interview he is just tough… That’s something we grapple with as female interviewers because people don’t want us to be tough” (Carty, 2015). Alberci also noted that it is far easier for interviewees to attack women in public than to attack men. However sexism throughout journalism extends even further, with Jane Singleton a former host of the ABC’s 7.30 Report, stating that she “faced enormous criticism, often vicious” and more often then not about superficial and personal matters in addition to her interviewing approach including her clothes, appearance, sexuality and her family (Singleton, 2015). “Make no mistake, the criticism does gain traction, it does damage careers and it can hurt. It matters” Singleton stated to the Sydney Morning Herald. These examples alone reveal that sexism is used against female journalists and broadcasters with the objective of disempowering them and discrediting their work, and that many are threatened by female journalists challenging the patriarchal view that women are meant to be gentle and submissive (Singleton, 2015).

Despite the challenges of inequality that are pitted towards female journalists right front he get go, women in media refuse to be silenced. However, the constant sexism has resulted in an extreme imbalance between male and female voices and opinions throughout the media. Rowan Davis who conducted the research for Greenland’s article stating “With such gaping under-representation in hard news, business and politics, we have to question whether the absence of women is effecting the content and slant of our news” (Greenslade, 2011). With male journalists saturating the journalism industry by almost two thirds (IWMF, 2011), the majority of the media audiences are exposed to daily consisting mostly of one gender’s work results in the risk that the information we are receiving exposing audiences to very limited recounts of events, opinions and voices rather than a wide range. Overall, suggesting that although it might be known as the ‘information age’ , the information we are receiving is still quite skewed and lacks the diversity expected of it.

Misogyny of any amount within the journalism and media industries is completely unacceptable, and as a result, how this issue will be resolved remains unclear. With feminism broadening its reach, issues such as the wage gap, imbalance of employment and lack of representation are increasingly being brought to light and gaining momentum to being resolved. Despite this, as a result of internalised misogyny being taught to children of both genders from birth, issues such as sexualisation of females amongst all industries, and the negative perception of them and their abilities have become more difficult to resolve. Misogyny impacts women all over the world in all different types of industries, especially those that are male dominated. Through educating children about the unacceptability of misogyny and inequality at a young age, educating those around us, and allowing femalyvoices on the matter to be heard, the issue will not change quickly, but momentum to resolve it is perpetuated. Female journalists must continue to be resilient to the criticism and abuse they may face throughout their careers, and must be the ones to open the doors for future female journalists in order to gain as much balance between the genders within the industry as possible.

With the advance of technology transforming the way audiences receive and trust information, Authorship and credibility are becoming increasingly imperative professional issues throughout journalism and media. Keen (2007) implies that online technology has expanded both the public sphere and fourth estate in the way that the internet provides a platform for the public to voice themselves, removing previous limitations. Although this provides an excellent platform for emerging journalists, the saturation of information has diluted the credibility of information found online, Keen stating “…In this era of exploding media technologies there is no truth except the truth you create for yourself”(Keen, 2007, pp.34). Due to this, it is imperative for journalists to ensure the reliability and credibility of their sources, especially in an age whether the credibility of the information shared online is severely lacking. Harvard Medical School defines authorship as “an explicit way of assigning responsibility and giving credit for intellectual work” and notes that it is important to the authors’ reputation and strength of the author’s work (Harvard Medical School, 2016). Through taking authorship of their work, journalists will demonstrate responsibility for the information they share and ensure that though some may not agree with their opinions, their work is still seen as reputable.

With the advance in technology providing a platform for many up and coming journalists, ensuring one is conscious of the direction they wish their career to take is imperative to achieving success throughout the fiercely competitively journalism and media industries (GRB, 2015). Tony Swanston comments in his book ‘The Seven C’s of Leadership Success’ that in most industries, failure is due to a personal issue of lack of setting goals for future growth. Swainston states “…to begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination” (Swainston, 2012, pp.60). He continues on suggest that success cannot be reached without understanding ‘where’ you currently are, how far you have you have come and ‘where’ exactly you want to be within a certain time frame. This is achieved by being realistic about your abilities and setting personal goals. For success throughout the journalism and media industries, goal setting and being appropriately critical of one’s progress is imperative to successfully breaking into a competitive industry, especially for female journalists who already have to face substantial amounts of the misogyny throughout their career.

Journalism and Media Industries are competitive and in order to self prepare, aspiring journalists, both male and female must understand the current ethical and personal issues that are rife throughout the industries, in which they may have to face. Misogyny within all industries, but especially that of Journalism and Media, will be no quick fix, but through educating oneself and others, encouraging female journalists to stand their ground and making way for those female journalists to come, it is an issue that may never be truely resolved, but can be significantly minimised overtime. In addition, journalists, both uprising and established need to take steps to take responsibility for the information they communicate throughout their work and need to continue to set goals and self criticise in order to always be progressing their career to their next step. Altogether, KJB102: Introduction to Journalism, Media & Communication has brought to light a range of issues that emerging journalists may face when throughout the industry and also how these can be resolved and challenged.

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REFERENCES

Bardon, F. (2012). Seen but not heard: how women make front page news
Women in Journalism. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from http://womeninjournalism.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Seen_but_not_heard.pdf

Beckett, C. (2008). Chapter 2 : . In Beckett, Charlie, Supermedia : saving journalism so it can save the world, (pp.85). Chichester: Blackwell Publishing.

Carty, S. (2015) Daily Mail Australia. ‘People are quicker to attack a woman than a man’: Female ABC journalists, labelled ‘aggressive’ by Malcolm Turnbull, insist their male colleagues don’t receive the same criticism. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3086005/ABC-female-journalists-Malcolm-Turnbull-said-aggressive-interviews-say-male-counterparts-not-face-criticism.html

Graduate Recruitment Bureau. (2015). Journalism Industry Profile for Graduates. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from http://www.grb.uk.com/journalism-industry-profile

Greenslade, R. (2011) Men still dominate national newspaper journalism. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from http://www.theguardian.com/media/greenslade/2011/mar/04/women-national-newspapers

Harvard Medical School. (2016) Authorship Guidelines. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from https://hms.harvard.edu/about-hms/integrity-academic-medicine/hms-policy/faculty-policies-integrity-science/authorship-guidelines

(IWMF) INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S MEDIA FOUNDATION. (2011). Global Report On The Status Of Women In The Media. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from https://www.iwmf.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/IWMF-Global-Report-Summary.pdf

Keen, Andrew, (2007). Chapter 1 : The Great Seduction. In Keen, Andrew, The cult of the amateur : how today’s internet is killing our culture and assaulting our economy, (pp.11 – 34). London: Nicholas Brealey.

Singleton, J. (2015) The Sydney Morning Herald. Sexism is used to disempower and discredit the work of female journalists and broadcasters. Retrieved on 29th May, 2016 from http://www.smh.com.au/comment/sexism-is-used-to-disempower-and-discredit-the-work-of-female-journalists-and-broadcasters-20150521-gh71nr.html

Swainston, Tony. (2012). The 7cs of Leadership Success; Unlock Your Inner Potential and Become A Great Leader. The Importance Of Setting Goals. AuthorHouse, Bloomington, IN 47403. pp.60.

Mark Zuckerberg’s Influence on Journalism, Media and Communication

Camryn Giles, 2016

Social Media has significantly revolutionised the way in which we communicate; allowing us to extend our communication beyond previous limitations; as well as connect with others on a global scale. At the forefront of this movement, is Mark Zuckerberg’s ‘Facebook’, with currently more than one billion users in total and being used in more than 70 languages (Facebook, 2014). The entrepreneur and philanthropist, Mark Zuckerberg, has not only used Facebook as his instrument to further the way in which we connect with others, but also pledged to utilise 99% of his profits from Facebook to fund his philanthropic causes. This essay will focus on how trends of globalisation and media convergence have greatly contributed to Mark Zuckerberg’s success, as well as analysing how he has utilised Facebook to expand the public sphere and redefine the fourth estate. It can be seen that his contribution to these four areas, in conjunction with his achievements due to Facebook, highlight Zuckerberg’s success in his mission to ‘give people the power to share and make the world more open and connected” (Zuckerberg, 2015).

Mark Zuckerberg, was born to Edward and Karen Zuckerberg in White Plains, New York on the 14th of May 1984 (A&E Television Networks, 2015). Zuckerberg’s interest in communication software and computer programming began developing at a young age, and at the age of 12, he had already created “Zucknet”, his first communicative computer program using Atari BASIC, which was utilised in both his own home as well as his father’s dental office (A&E Television Networks, 2015) . It was during this time that Zuckerberg had been described as a ‘prodigy, who was hard to keep ahead of’ by his tutor ; software developer, David Newman (Western, 2014). Whilst undertaking his secondary schooling at New Hampshire’s Phillips Exeter Academy, Zuckerberg created a music software program called “Synapse”, which first brought Zuckerberg’s talent to light and caught the attention of two of the largest programming companies at the time, Microsoft and AOL (Dreier, 2010).

Following his graduation, Zuckerberg began studying computer science and psychology at Ivy League Institution Harvard, where he created two communicative programs; CourseMatch and FaceMatch (A&E Television Networks, 2015). Following this, Zuckerberg began the creation of his most famous social network “The Facebook”. Zuckerberg’s original vision for ‘Facebook’ was to create a social network that allowed the students to connect with one another. Zuckerberg, launched “ The Facebook” on the 4th of February 2004, and over 1200 Harvard students had signed up to the social network within under 24 hours of it’s launch (Phillips, 2007). By the end of 2004, Facebook had achieved a total of 1 million users, and Zuckerberg dropped out of college, moving to California to devote himself to it full time.Come 2016, he is currently worth $48.8 Billion, and ranked number #1 on Forbes’ America’s Richest Entrepreneurs under 40, and number 6 on Forbes’ Billionaires list for 2016 (Forbes, 2016).

So much of Facebook’s success can be attributed to the influence of media convergence, and how Facebook has created a whole new outlet of communication to a mass audience through blurring the boundaries. Media convergence is defined by britannia as Encyclopaedia Britannica as “a phenomenon involving the interconnection of information and communications technologies, computer networks, and media content.” (Flew, 2016). With over a billion users worldwide, Facebook has transformed the way we receive our news updates, entertainment, and media with corporations migrating to the social network, where mass audiences can be reached, regardless of their location, at the touch of a button. People and businesses all over the globe now have a new outlet to reach and extend their audiences, with seemingly minimal effort. According to Michael Scissons, president-CEO of Syncapse, “Social media is now the world’s largest mass media. One billion consumers are now reachable through social media channels” (Scissons, 2012). Zuckerberg has created a digital platform with a incredibly vast amount of both audiences and content creators, and has transformed the way in which we share information.

The influence of Globalisation is another key component in Zuckerberg’s success, with Facebook currently available in over 70 languages and continuously expanding it’s reach worldwide. Globalisation is defined by the Financial Times as “a process by which national and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through the global network of trade, communication, immigration and transportation.”(Financial Times, 2016). In an interview with BBC news, Zuckerberg described one of Facebook’s key aims as “to make it easier for the world to share information” (Zuckerberg, Miller, 2014). With Facebook having become a truely global network, its users are able to connect and share with people, businesses, entertainment and news all over the globe. However, Zuckerberg, despite his current achievements, believes that there is still so much more to be done it terms of globalisation, and he states that “ for the majority of people in this world, the internet can be a lifeline’ and aims to extend the internet to those who currently don’t have access, in order to improve their quality of life through education and connection, claiming “only then can we collectively start to give everyone an equal opportunity” (Zuckerberg, 2015) . Through giving the world the tools to share information on a global scale, Zuckerberg has succeeded in creating a virtual space that brings the world to one place.

“The faces of power are changing and the fourth estate is changing too.” (Bradshaw, 2011) . Facebook has, in some respects, redefined ‘ the fourth estate’, through blurring the lines between the authors and the audience. Allan Stuart, a Professor of Journalism at Bournemouth university ,UK states that “The idea of the Fourth Estate signifies that, whatever the formal constitution, genuine political power resides in the informal role of the press, which in turn derives from the relationship between the press and it’s readers” (Stuart, A. 2009) . Dating back into the eighteenth century, the english concept of the Fourth Estate, “rests on the idea that the media’s function is to act as a guardian of the public interest and as a watchdog on the activities of government”. It contrasts with the three other estates; the Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and the House of Commons, which now is equated to the modern day church, government and the public (Farnsworth, 1995) . Through establishing a platform where users can create and share information on a global scale, much of which comments on current political topics and news, Zuckerberg has redefined who can contribute to the Fourth eEstate. Not only has he given the public the power to spread information, but to also initiate political change within their own societies, as noted by professor Fulya who states “In the last several years, we have witnessed the power of the Internet help citizens change the regimes that govern them” (Fulya, 2012, pp.491).

In addition, Zuckerberg has also successfully made a significant contribution to the concept of the ‘Public Sphere’, through effectively creating a platform accessible to billions worldwide, resulting most widespread public sphere in existence. The ‘Public Sphere’ dates back to Ancient Greece, and was a space allocated specifically for philosophers to come together with the purpose of debating political and philosophical ideas (Neal, 2012) Jurgen Habermas, a German philosopher, defines the Public Sphere as “realm of our social life in something approaching public opinion can be formed. (Where) access is guaranteed to all citizens,” (Habermas,1989, p102) and describes that it is “made up of private people gathered together as a public and articulating the needs of society with the state” (Habermas, 1991, pp. 176). With 1.038 Billion active daily users and 4.75 billion pieces (Smith, 2016) of content are shared daily, Facebook has become the largest scale public sphere in existence. Zuckerberg has given a voice to the public through effectively created a space where the world can connect, and come together to debate and discuss ideas.

In my opinion, success is not a final result , but a journey; one which is continued through the creation and reaching of goals. Zuckerberg has done just that, having always stated that his goal was to “ make the world a more open place” (Facebook, 2016) and to ‘ make it easier for the world to share information’ (Zuckerberg, Miller, 2014). However, in addition to his current success, Zuckerberg continues to expand his goals to not just ‘connect the world’, but to use his platform and previous success to created a better future for generations to come. In a letter to his daughter he comments on the fact that more than 4 billion people still don’t have access to the internet and that “ If our generation connect them, we can lift hundreds of millions of people out of poverty”, pledging 99% of Facebook’s profits for the cause (Zuckerberg, 2015). Furthermore,through the creation of Facebook, Zuckerberg has had an astounding influence on globalisation, media convergence, the public sphere and the fourth estate, which as a result; has brought him success and has revolutionised the fields of media, journalism and mass communication.

References

A & E Television Networks, (2015). Mark Zuckerberg Biography. http://www.biography.com/people/mark-zuckerberg-507402 (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Bradshaw, Paul. (2011). Social media and the evolution of the fourth estate. http://memeburn.com/2011/12/social-media-and-the-evolution-of-the-fourth-estate/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Dreier, Troy. (2010) Synapse Media Player 1.01 http://au.pcmag.com/music-products/8249/review/synapse-media-player-101# (Accessed 22nd March, 2016).

Farnsworth, Malcolm. (1995). ‘The Fourth Estate’ http://australianpolitics.com/topics/media/the-fourth-estate (Accessed 27th March, 2016).

Financial Times, (2016) . Definition of Globalisation http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=globalisation
(Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Flew, Terry. (2016) . Media Convergence, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc, http://www.britannica.com/topic/media-convergence (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Forbes, (2016). The World’s Billionaires, #6 Mark Zuckerberg. http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Fulya, A . (2012) ‘The Social Media As A Public Sphere: The Rise Of Social Opposition’ International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design.http://www.cmdconf.net/2012/makale/92.pdf (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Habermas, Jurgen(1989) The Public Sphere: An Encyclopaedia Article. In Critical Theory and Society: A Reader. Stephen Eric Bronner and Douglas M Kellner. New York: Routledge. pp 136-142. reproduced in Media and Cultural Studies: key works. Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas M Kellner (ed). (2001) Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. pp102-107.

Habermas, Jurgen (1991) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a category of Bourgeois Society. Trans. Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Neal, Christopher. (2012) ‘The public sphere and the New Media http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/public-sphere-and-new-media (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Phillips, Sarah. (2007). A Brief History of Facebook http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/jul/25/media.newmedia (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Scissions, Michael. (2012) Why Facebook, Twitter Are Accelerating the Convergence of Ad-Tech and Software http://adage.com/article/digitalnext/facebook-twitter-accelerating-convergence-ad-tech-software/236140/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Smith, Craig. (2016). By The Numbers: 200+ Amazing Facebook Statistics (January 2016) http://expandedramblings.com/index.php/by-the-numbers-17-amazing-facebook-stats/ (Accessed
16th March, 2016).

Stuart, Allan. (2009). ‘The Fourth Estate Ideal in Journalism History’ ‘The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism. Routledge, UK. pp

Western, Dan. (2014) The Success Story of Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook) http://wealthygorilla.com/success-story-mark-zuckerberg/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Zuckerberg, Mark & Miller, J. (2014). Zuckerberg: Facebook’s mission is to ‘connect the world’, BBC News http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-26326844 (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Zuckerberg, Mark (2015). A Letter To Our Daughter. Facebook https://www.facebook.com/notes/mark-zuckerberg/a-letter-to-our-daughter/10153375081581634/ (Accessed 27th March, 2016).

Zuckerberg, Mark (2016). Mark Zuckerberg. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/zuck (Accessed
16th March, 2016).

Mark Zuckerberg’s Influence on Journalism, Media and Communication

Camryn Giles

Social Media has significantly revolutionised the way in which we communicate; allowing us to extend our communication beyond previous limitations; as well as connect with others on a global scale. At the forefront of this movement, is Mark Zuckerberg’s ‘Facebook’, with currently more than one billion users in total and being used in more than 70 languages (Facebook, 2014). The entrepreneur and philanthropist, Mark Zuckerberg, has not only used Facebook as his instrument to further the way in which we connect with others, but also pledged to utilise 99% of his profits from Facebook to fund his philanthropic causes. This essay will focus on how trends of globalisation and media convergence have greatly contributed to Mark Zuckerberg’s success, as well as analysing how he has utilised Facebook to expand the public sphere and redefine the fourth estate. It can be seen that his contribution to these four areas, in conjunction with his achievements due to Facebook, highlight Zuckerberg’s success in his mission to ‘give people the power to share and make the world more open and connected” (Zuckerberg, 2015).

Mark Zuckerberg, was born to Edward and Karen Zuckerberg in White Plains, New York on the 14th of May 1984 (A&E Television Networks, 2015). Zuckerberg’s interest in communication software and computer programming began developing at a young age, and at the age of 12, he had already created “Zucknet”, his first communicative computer program using Atari BASIC, which was utilised in both his own home as well as his father’s dental office (A&E Television Networks, 2015) . It was during this time that Zuckerberg had been described as a ‘prodigy, who was hard to keep ahead of’ by his tutor ; software developer, David Newman (Western, 2014). Whilst undertaking his secondary schooling at New Hampshire’s Phillips Exeter Academy, Zuckerberg created a music software program called “Synapse”, which first brought Zuckerberg’s talent to light and caught the attention of two of the largest programming companies at the time, Microsoft and AOL (Dreier, 2010).

Following his graduation, Zuckerberg began studying computer science and psychology at Ivy League Institution Harvard, where he created two communicative programs; CourseMatch and FaceMatch (A&E Television Networks, 2015). Following this, Zuckerberg began the creation of his most famous social network “The Facebook”. Zuckerberg’s original vision for ‘Facebook’ was to create a social network that allowed the students to connect with one another. Zuckerberg, launched “ The Facebook” on the 4th of February 2004, and over 1200 Harvard students had signed up to the social network within under 24 hours of it’s launch (Phillips, 2007). By the end of 2004, Facebook had achieved a total of 1 million users, and Zuckerberg dropped out of college, moving to California to devote himself to it full time.Come 2016, he is currently worth $48.8 Billion, and ranked number #1 on Forbes’ America’s Richest Entrepreneurs under 40, and number 6 on Forbes’ Billionaires list for 2016 (Forbes, 2016).

So much of Facebook’s success can be attributed to the influence of media convergence, and how Facebook has created a whole new outlet of communication to a mass audience through blurring the boundaries. Media convergence is defined by britannia as Encyclopaedia Britannica as “a phenomenon involving the interconnection of information and communications technologies, computer networks, and media content.” (Flew, 2016). With over a billion users worldwide, Facebook has transformed the way we receive our news updates, entertainment, and media with corporations migrating to the social network, where mass audiences can be reached, regardless of their location, at the touch of a button. People and businesses all over the globe now have a new outlet to reach and extend their audiences, with seemingly minimal effort. According to Michael Scissons, president-CEO of Syncapse, “Social media is now the world’s largest mass media. One billion consumers are now reachable through social media channels” (Scissons, 2012). Zuckerberg has created a digital platform with a incredibly vast amount of both audiences and content creators, and has transformed the way in which we share information.

The influence of Globalisation is another key component in Zuckerberg’s success, with Facebook currently available in over 70 languages and continuously expanding it’s reach worldwide. Globalisation is defined by the Financial Times as “a process by which national and regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through the global network of trade, communication, immigration and transportation.”(Financial Times, 2016). In an interview with BBC news, Zuckerberg described one of Facebook’s key aims as “to make it easier for the world to share information” (Zuckerberg, Miller, 2014). With Facebook having become a truely global network, its users are able to connect and share with people, businesses, entertainment and news all over the globe. However, Zuckerberg, despite his current achievements, believes that there is still so much more to be done it terms of globalisation, and he states that “ for the majority of people in this world, the internet can be a lifeline’ and aims to extend the internet to those who currently don’t have access, in order to improve their quality of life through education and connection, claiming “only then can we collectively start to give everyone an equal opportunity” (Zuckerberg, 2015) . Through giving the world the tools to share information on a global scale, Zuckerberg has succeeded in creating a virtual space that brings the world to one place.

“The faces of power are changing and the fourth estate is changing too.” (Bradshaw, 2011) . Facebook has, in some respects, redefined ‘ the fourth estate’, through blurring the lines between the authors and the audience. Allan Stuart, a Professor of Journalism at Bournemouth university ,UK states that “The idea of the Fourth Estate signifies that, whatever the formal constitution, genuine political power resides in the informal role of the press, which in turn derives from the relationship between the press and it’s readers” (Stuart, A. 2009) . Dating back into the eighteenth century, the english concept of the Fourth Estate, “rests on the idea that the media’s function is to act as a guardian of the public interest and as a watchdog on the activities of government”. It contrasts with the three other estates; the Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and the House of Commons, which now is equated to the modern day church, government and the public (Farnsworth, 1995) . Through establishing a platform where users can create and share information on a global scale, much of which comments on current political topics and news, Zuckerberg has redefined who can contribute to the Fourth eEstate. Not only has he given the public the power to spread information, but to also initiate political change within their own societies, as noted by professor Fulya who states “In the last several years, we have witnessed the power of the Internet help citizens change the regimes that govern them” (Fulya, 2012, pp.491).

In addition, Zuckerberg has also successfully made a significant contribution to the concept of the ‘Public Sphere’, through effectively creating a platform accessible to billions worldwide, resulting most widespread public sphere in existence. The ‘Public Sphere’ dates back to Ancient Greece, and was a space allocated specifically for philosophers to come together with the purpose of debating political and philosophical ideas (Neal, 2012) Jurgen Habermas, a German philosopher, defines the Public Sphere as “realm of our social life in something approaching public opinion can be formed. (Where) access is guaranteed to all citizens,” (Habermas,1989, p102) and describes that it is “made up of private people gathered together as a public and articulating the needs of society with the state” (Habermas, 1991, pp. 176). With 1.038 Billion active daily users and 4.75 billion pieces (Smith, 2016) of content are shared daily, Facebook has become the largest scale public sphere in existence. Zuckerberg has given a voice to the public through effectively created a space where the world can connect, and come together to debate and discuss ideas.

In my opinion, success is not a final result , but a journey; one which is continued through the creation and reaching of goals. Zuckerberg has done just that, having always stated that his goal was to “ make the world a more open place” (Facebook, 2016) and to ‘ make it easier for the world to share information’ (Zuckerberg, Miller, 2014). However, in addition to his current success, Zuckerberg continues to expand his goals to not just ‘connect the world’, but to use his platform and previous success to created a better future for generations to come. In a letter to his daughter he comments on the fact that more than 4 billion people still don’t have access to the internet and that “ If our generation connect them, we can lift hundreds of millions of people out of poverty”, pledging 99% of Facebook’s profits for the cause (Zuckerberg, 2015). Furthermore,through the creation of Facebook, Zuckerberg has had an astounding influence on globalisation, media convergence, the public sphere and the fourth estate, which as a result; has brought him success and has revolutionised the fields of media, journalism and mass communication.

References

A & E Television Networks, (2015). Mark Zuckerberg Biography. http://www.biography.com/people/mark-zuckerberg-507402 (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Bradshaw, Paul. (2011). Social media and the evolution of the fourth estate. http://memeburn.com/2011/12/social-media-and-the-evolution-of-the-fourth-estate/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Dreier, Troy. (2010) Synapse Media Player 1.01 http://au.pcmag.com/music-products/8249/review/synapse-media-player-101# (Accessed 22nd March, 2016).

Farnsworth, Malcolm. (1995). ‘The Fourth Estate’ http://australianpolitics.com/topics/media/the-fourth-estate (Accessed 27th March, 2016).

Financial Times, (2016) . Definition of Globalisation http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=globalisation
(Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Flew, Terry. (2016) . Media Convergence, Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc, http://www.britannica.com/topic/media-convergence (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Forbes, (2016). The World’s Billionaires, #6 Mark Zuckerberg. http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Fulya, A . (2012) ‘The Social Media As A Public Sphere: The Rise Of Social Opposition’ International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design.http://www.cmdconf.net/2012/makale/92.pdf (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Habermas, Jurgen(1989) The Public Sphere: An Encyclopaedia Article. In Critical Theory and Society: A Reader. Stephen Eric Bronner and Douglas M Kellner. New York: Routledge. pp 136-142. reproduced in Media and Cultural Studies: key works. Meenakshi Gigi Durham and Douglas M Kellner (ed). (2001) Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. pp102-107.

Habermas, Jurgen (1991) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a category of Bourgeois Society. Trans. Thomas Burger with Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Neal, Christopher. (2012) ‘The public sphere and the New Media http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/public-sphere-and-new-media (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Phillips, Sarah. (2007). A Brief History of Facebook http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/jul/25/media.newmedia (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Scissions, Michael. (2012) Why Facebook, Twitter Are Accelerating the Convergence of Ad-Tech and Software http://adage.com/article/digitalnext/facebook-twitter-accelerating-convergence-ad-tech-software/236140/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Smith, Craig. (2016). By The Numbers: 200+ Amazing Facebook Statistics (January 2016) http://expandedramblings.com/index.php/by-the-numbers-17-amazing-facebook-stats/ (Accessed
16th March, 2016).

Stuart, Allan. (2009). ‘The Fourth Estate Ideal in Journalism History’ ‘The Routledge Companion to News and Journalism. Routledge, UK. pp

Western, Dan. (2014) The Success Story of Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook) http://wealthygorilla.com/success-story-mark-zuckerberg/ (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Zuckerberg, Mark & Miller, J. (2014). Zuckerberg: Facebook’s mission is to ‘connect the world’, BBC News http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-26326844 (Accessed 16th March, 2016).

Zuckerberg, Mark (2015). A Letter To Our Daughter. Facebook https://www.facebook.com/notes/mark-zuckerberg/a-letter-to-our-daughter/10153375081581634/ (Accessed 27th March, 2016).

Zuckerberg, Mark (2016). Mark Zuckerberg. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/zuck (Accessed
16th March, 2016).